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France - Wikipedia

 

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It is bordered by BelgiumLuxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks inwho formed the Kingdom of Francia.

During the RenaissanceFrench culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world. France became Europe's dominant cultural, political, and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the 19th century, Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire.

His subsequent Napoleonic Wars —15 shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in France was a major participant in World War Ifrom which it emerged victorious porn actu france, and was one of the Allies in World War IIbut came under occupation by the Axis powers in Following liberation ina Fourth Republic was established and later dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, porn actu france.

The Fifth Republicled by Charles de Gaullewas formed in and remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the s, with most retaining close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of artscienceporn actu france, and philosophy. Originally applied to the whole Frankish Empirethe name France comes from the Latin Franciaor "country of the Franks ".

There are various theories as to the porn actu france of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm[22] the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank free in English. The oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from approximately 1. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life, porn actu france. At the end of the last glacial period 10, BCthe climate became milder; [29] from approximately 7, BC, this part of Western Europe entered the Neolithic era and its inhabitants became sedentary.

After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium, porn actu france, initially working goldcopper and bronzeand later iron. This makes it France's oldest city. The concept of Gaul emerged at that time; it corresponds to porn actu france territories of Celtic settlement ranging between the Rhinethe Atlantic Oceanthe Pyrenees and the Mediterranean. The borders of modern France are roughly the same as those of ancient Gaul, which was inhabited by Celtic Gauls.

Gaul was then a prosperous country, of porn actu france the southernmost part was heavily subject to Greek and Roman cultural and economic influences. Gaul was divided by Augustus into Roman provinces. The Gauls mixed with Roman settlers and eventually adopted Roman culture and Roman speech Latinfrom which the French language evolved. The Roman polytheism merged with the Gallic paganism into the same syncretism. From the s to the s AD, Roman Gaul suffered a serious crisis with its fortified borders being attacked on several occasions by barbarians.

Subsequently, Christians, porn actu france, who had been persecuted until then, increased rapidly across the entire Roman Empire. At the end of the Antiquity period, ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms and a remaining Gallo-Roman territory, known as the Kingdom of Syagrius. Simultaneously, Celtic Britonsfleeing the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britainsettled the western part of Armorica.

As a porn actu france, the Armorican peninsula was renamed BrittanyCeltic culture was revived and independent petty kingdoms arose in this region. The first leader to make himself king of all the Franks was Clovis Iwho began his reign inrouting the last forces of the Roman governors of the province in Clovis claimed that he would be baptized a Christian in the event of his victory porn actu france the Visigothswhich was said to have guaranteed the battle. Clovis regained the southwest from the Visigothswas baptized inand made himself master of what is now western Germany.

The Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languagesexcept in northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense and where Germanic languages emerged. Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian dynastybut his kingdom would porn actu france survive his death. The Franks treated land purely as a private possession and divided it among their heirs, so four kingdoms emerged from Clovis's: Paris, OrléansSoissonsporn actu france, and Rheims.

The last Merovingian kings lost power porn actu france their mayors of the palace head of household, porn actu france. One mayor of the palace, Charles Marteldefeated an Islamic invasion of Gaul at the Battle of Tours and earned respect and power within the Frankish kingdoms. His son, Pepin the Shortseized the crown of Francia from the weakened Merovingians and founded the Carolingian dynasty, porn actu france.

Pepin's son, Charlemagnereunited the Frankish kingdoms and built a vast empire across Western and Central Europe. Charlemagne's son, Louis I Emperor —kept the empire united; however, this Carolingian Empire would not survive his death. West Francia approximated the area occupied by, and was the precursor to, porn actu france, modern France.

During the 9th and 10th centuries, continually threatened by Viking invasionsFrance became a very decentralised state: the nobility's titles and lands became hereditary, and the authority of the king became more religious than secular and thus was less effective and constantly challenged by powerful noblemen. Thus was established feudalism in France. Over time, some of the king's vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed a threat to the king. For example, after the Battle of Hastings inporn actu france, William the Conqueror added "King of England" to his titles, becoming both the vassal to as Duke of Normandy and the equal of as king of England the king of France, creating recurring tensions.

The French nobility played a prominent role in most Crusades in order to restore Christian access to the Holy Land. French knights made up the bulk of the steady flow of reinforcements throughout the two-hundred-year span of the Crusades, in such a fashion that the Arabs uniformly referred to the crusaders as Franj caring little whether they really came from France.

The latter, in particular, held numerous properties throughout France and by the 13th century were the principal bankers for the French crown, until Philip IV annihilated the order in The Albigensian Crusade was launched in to eliminate the heretical Cathars in the southwestern area of modern-day France.

In the end, the Cathars were exterminated and the autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into the crown lands of France. Meanwhile, the royal authority became more and more assertive, centred on a hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobilityclergy, and commoners.

From the 11th century, the House of Plantagenet, the rulers of the County of Anjousucceeded in establishing its dominion over the surrounding provinces of Maine and Tourainethen progressively built an "empire" that spanned from England to the Pyrenees and covering half of modern France.

Tensions between porn actu france kingdom of France and the Plantagenet empire would last a hundred years, until Philip Augustus of France conquered between and most of the continental possessions of the empire, leaving England and Aquitaine to the Plantagenets. Following the Battle of Bouvinesthe Angevin court retreated to England, porn actu france, but persistent Capetian—Plantagenet rivalry would paved the way for another conflict.

Charles IV the Fair died without an heir in During the reign of Philip of Valoisthe French monarchy reached the height of its medieval power. With charismatic porn actu france, such as Joan of Arc and La Hirestrong French counterattacks won back English continental territories.

Like the rest of Europe, France was struck by the Black Death; half of the 17 million population of France died. The French Renaissance saw a spectacular cultural development and the first standardisation of the Porn actu france language, which would become the official language of France and the language of Europe's aristocracy.

It also saw a long set of wars, porn actu france, known as the Italian Warsbetween France and the House of Habsburg. French explorers, such as Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlainclaimed lands in the Americas for France, paving the way for the expansion of the First French colonial empire. The rise of Protestantism in Europe led France to a civil war known as the French Wars of Religionwhere, in the most notorious incident, thousands of Huguenots were murdered in the St.

Bartholomew's Day massacre of Spanish troops, the terror of Western Europe, [57] assisted the Catholic side during the Wars of Religion in —, and invaded northern France in ; after some skirmishing in the s and s, Spain and France returned to all-out war between and The war cost Francecasualties.

Under Louis XIIIporn actu france, the energetic Cardinal Richelieu promoted the centralisation of the state and reinforced the royal power by disarming domestic power holders in the s.

He systematically destroyed castles of defiant lords and denounced the use of private violence duelingcarrying weapons, and maintaining porn actu france army. By the end of s, Richelieu established "the royal monopoly of force" as the doctrine. This rebellion was driven by the great feudal lords and sovereign courts as a reaction to the rise of royal absolute power in France. The monarchy reached its peak during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV.

By turning powerful feudal lords into courtiers at the Palace of VersaillesLouis XIV's personal power became unchallenged. Remembered for his numerous wars, he made France the leading European power. France became the most populous country in Europe and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture.

French became the most-used language in diplomacy, science, literature and international affairs, and remained so until the 20th century. Its European territory kept growing, however, with notable acquisitions such as Lorraine and Corsica An unpopular king, Louis XV's weak rule, his ill-advised financial, political and military decisions — as well as the debauchery of his court— discredited the monarchy, which arguably paved the way for the French Revolution 15 years after his death.

The financial crisis aggravated by France's involvement porn actu france the American Revolutionary War was one of many contributing porn actu france to the French Revolution.

Much of the Enlightenment occurred in French intellectual circles, and major scientific breakthroughs and inventions, such as the discovery of oxygen and the first hot air balloon carrying passengerswere achieved by French scientists.

French explorers, such as Bougainville and Lapérousetook part in the voyages of porn actu france exploration through maritime porn actu france around the globe. The Enlightenment philosophy, in which reason is advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authorityundermined the power of and support for the monarchy and helped pave the way for the French Revolution.

As it came to an impasse, the representatives of the Third Estate formed into a National Assemblysignalling the outbreak of the French Revolution. Fearing that the king would suppress the newly created National Assembly, insurgents stormed the Bastille on 14 Julya date which would become France's National Day.

In early Augustthe National Constituent Assembly abolished the privileges of the nobility such as personal serfdom and exclusive hunting rights. Through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 27 August France established fundamental rights for men. The Declaration affirms "the natural and imprescriptible rights of man" to "liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression", porn actu france.

Freedom of speech and press were declared, and arbitrary arrests outlawed. It called for the destruction of aristocratic privileges and proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, as well as access to public office based porn actu france talent rather than birth. In Novemberthe Assembly decided to nationalize and sell all property of the Roman Catholic Church which had been the largest landowner in the country.

In Julya Civil Constitution of the Clergy reorganised the French Catholic Church, cancelling the authority of the Church to levy taxes, et cetera. This fueled much discontent in parts of France, which would contribute to the civil war breaking out some years later.

While King Louis XVI still enjoyed popularity among the population, his disastrous flight to Varennes June seemed to justify rumours he had tied porn actu france hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign invasion.

His credibility was so deeply undermined that the abolition of the monarchy and establishment of a republic became an increasing possibility. In Augustthe Emperor of Austria and the King of Prussia in the Declaration of Pillnitz threatened revolutionary France to intervene by force of arms to restore the French absolute monarchy.

In the newly established Legislative Assembly Octoberenmity developed and deepened between a group, later called the ' Girondins ', who favored war with Austria and Prussiaand a group later called ' Montagnards ' or ' Jacobins ', who opposed such a war, porn actu france. A majority in the Assembly in however saw a war with Austria and Prussia as a chance to boost the popularity of the revolutionary government, and thought that France would win a war against those gathered monarchies.

On 20 Aprilporn actu france, therefore, they declared war on Austria. In early September, Parisians, porn actu france, infuriated by the Prussian army capturing Verdun and counter-revolutionary uprisings in the west of France, porn actu france, murdered between 1, and 1, prisoners by raiding the Parisian prisons.

 

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porno Toute l'actualité et les articles de GQ avec toutes nos interviews, video et images. Regardez toute l'info en streaming. Tous les sujets d'actu et société des chaînes France Télévisions en replay sur mymmareview-z.cf France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, Calling code: +